Knowledge Base

How can physical activity
help you?

Don’t Go To The Gym

Don’t go to the gym … on your own. You might think only speaking to the receptionist and giving yourself time and space is good for you, however this is not a long term behaviour which is easy to sustain and misses out on many of the benefits of working out with others. Working outContinue reading “Don’t Go To The Gym”

Raise your hands if you Do Not want to be unhealthy

Raise your hands if you Do Not want to be unhealthy… put them down, raise your hands, put them down, go a little faster… add a jump… keep going… “There is no situation, no age, no condition, where exercise is not a good thing”Chief Medical Officer, Professor Chris Whitty

Diversity and Inclusion in Fitness – Why We Need More of It

1. Fitness Is for Everyone Contrary to what we see portrayed in fitness magazines and throughout social media, fitness is for everyone. Fitness isn’t for a particular size, gender, shape, age, or ethnicity. You don’t need to look a certain way to have a ‘fit’ body, nor do you need to possess any particular physicalContinue reading “Diversity and Inclusion in Fitness – Why We Need More of It”

Do you Jōbu?

Jōbu 丈夫 (pr. Joe-boo) – is Japanese, meaning robust, durable, sturdy, strong, healthy. We are a social enterprise providing a free booking app for those wanting to join in fun social physical activity & for Trainers (no fees for trainers or participants). We use behavioural science to help motivate people to start and stay active.Continue reading “Do you Jōbu?”

Friends With Benefits

Are you a Trainer or Coach? Do you have a referral program? How active is it? Did you know that 72% of physical activity groups get their new participants from referrals. Having an active referral program is a high priority for developing new participants. Having new participants join in means that others can make moreContinue reading “Friends With Benefits”

Just do it or just don’t

Taking part in physical activity means; you are likely to live longer you will need the NHS less your mental health will be better you will have more confidence, self esteem and more friends your muscles and bones will be stronger blood pressure will improve, less chance of cancers, dementia, diabetes, stroke… your brain willContinue reading “Just do it or just don’t”

What do you do to improve your own, and others, physical, mental and social wellbeing?

One of the best gifts you can give a family member, friend or colleague is helping them improve their physical, mental and social wellbeing. A great approach to improving all these is taking part in social physical activity (SPA). Everyone has some level of fitness and it is important to maintain or improve it andContinue reading “What do you do to improve your own, and others, physical, mental and social wellbeing?”

3 Social Benefits of Exercise

Confidence When you exercise, you improve your self-confidence and self-esteem. You are likely to be more open with others, more involved, and more social overall. When you stick to a routine exercise regimen and see results, the effects are powerful. As you get stronger and faster confidence follows. Knowing that you can follow through withContinue reading “3 Social Benefits of Exercise”

3 Reasons to Escape the Gym

YOU SIMPLY BURN MORE CALORIES OUTDOORS “You burn around 7 percent more calories running outside than indoors on a treadmill” according to  Dr John Porcari, Director of the Clinical Exercise Physiology program at the University of Wisconsin, taking wind resistance, terrain and variations in temperature into account. Plus, when people train outdoors, they tend to spend longerContinue reading “3 Reasons to Escape the Gym”

Effects of Physical Activity on Trust

Those who take part in physical activity exhibit more trust and prosocial behaviours than those who do not. This is the findings of the research paper from Stefano Papa Ph.D, Sapienza University of Rome. Physical activity reduces anxiety and stress, promoting cooperation. Also, people who share the same, even individual, experience enhance their prosocial Behavior.Continue reading “Effects of Physical Activity on Trust”

How To Get Referrals

Sophie Leming, MSc Health Psychology, MSc Human Movement Science, a great friend and supporter of Jōbu has created a paper to support the physical activity industry. Referrals are the lifeblood of a Trainers business. Healthy physical activity businesses = healthy local community = less use of the NHS, more trusting communities, less crime, better localContinue reading “How To Get Referrals”

Are you doing enough muscle strengthening activities?

Alongside doing at least 150 minutes of physical activity a week, the Chief Medical Officer also recommends adults should do muscle strengthening activities on at least two days a week. (Sport England, Active Lives, Adult Survey Nov 20/21 Report, Published Apr 2022) Also recommended by the NHS and WHO 🏋🏾‍♀️ 💪 Why? Reduce Your HealthContinue reading “Are you doing enough muscle strengthening activities?”

How Benevolence and Supporting Charity Improve Wellbeing

Being benevolent is often intrinsically motivated. Being kind, giving to charity instils a sense of satisfaction, self worth and self esteem, leads to improved prosocial behaviour and ultimately improved wellbeing for those behaving benevolently and those they influence. Research and more details 👐😇🦸‍♂️🦸🏿 and Benevolence

Behaviour vs. Outcome-Based Goals – Which are best?

Behaviour-based goals are typically changes we make to how we act, they focus on how we personally feel and behave, rather than just looking purely at the outcome of our actions. Outcome-based goals are changes we make to our performance, They focus on the outcome of our actions, rather than how we feel about performingContinue reading “Behaviour vs. Outcome-Based Goals – Which are best?”

Setting goals and staying motivated during January 💪🏼🏃🏽‍♂️🏃🏽‍♀️

Set Objective and Subjective Goals Objective goals focus on quantitative outcomes—tangible aspects of exercise or fitness that we can measure and see. Subjective goals focus on qualitative outcomes—feelings or perceptions we want to experience in regard to exercise. Subjective goals are important because they help uncover the root “why” of our objective goals. Research by Dr. Michelle Segar andContinue reading “Setting goals and staying motivated during January 💪🏼🏃🏽‍♂️🏃🏽‍♀️”

The benefits of exercising outdoors during winter

Research conducted in Finland found that training outdoors has a positive impact on our sleep quality, physiological health and mental wellbeing – with the latter observing the greatest effects. In the summer, our bodies rely on the sunshine for a hearty dose of Vitamin D which is important in keeping our muscles, bones and teeth healthy. In theContinue reading “The benefits of exercising outdoors during winter”

Why have diversity in physical activity groups?

Creating an environment that supports a psychologically safe climate enables individuals to; perform at their best, increase confidence and self esteem, support others and make the group experience more enjoyable. Creating a psychologically safe climate for a group of similar people is important. There can be additional  benefits for a diverse group too… Here areContinue reading “Why have diversity in physical activity groups?”

Managers/Coaches/Personal Trainers – Get In … trinsic!

Helping to move staff/colleagues/clients to being intrinsically motivated means they will work harder, stay longer and more.  Extrinsic rewards are great to promote initial action but they don’t encourage ongoing positive behavior change. Intrinsic motivation is related to performance, work effort, creativity, retention and higher … satisfaction.  As Managers/Coaches/Personal Trainers you can make this happen by designing an environmentContinue reading “Managers/Coaches/Personal Trainers – Get In … trinsic!”

Come on down, join in the fun!

Taking part in physical activity is about getting healthy, physically, mentally and socially … and having fun! Moving the emphasis of taking part in physical activity to joining a session/class for; Support, Socialising, Autonomy, Competency and fun, can change it to an activity that you want to take part in. Most Coaches/PTs help participants withContinue reading “Come on down, join in the fun!”

Influence and Benevolence

3 Degrees of Influence follow up post… To build influence you need ability, integrity, and benevolence. Ability; Delivery – Your own personal expertise to be able to get the job done to the right level of satisfaction for the customersCoaching – Your ability to be able to share your knowledge with others, to help developContinue reading “Influence and Benevolence”

3 Degrees of Influence

Your behaviour not only influences your direct friend it influences your friends’ friends’ and your friends’, friends’, friends … and their behaviour influences you! Three Degrees of Influence is a theory in social networks, proposed by Nicholas A. Christakis, Professor of Social and Natural Science at Yale University, and James H. Fowler, Professor of Medical Genetics and Professor of Political ScienceContinue reading “3 Degrees of Influence”

Can physical activity improve prosocial behaviour?

Regular physical activity in adults can promote good health, improve cognitive function, and prevent disease. Abundant research from the health and exercise science literature also presents empirical evidence of positive “non-health effects” induced by physical activity or sports participation. Among the non-health effects, physical activity improves life satisfaction, happiness, subjective well-being, mental health, and interpersonalContinue reading “Can physical activity improve prosocial behaviour?”

What do you know?

Do you learn something from your physical activity PT/Coach?   PT’s and Coaches have formal training and posses knowledge that should be shared with those taking part. The knowledge comes from formal certification/qualifications and experience. Sharing that knowledge shows a level of Competence and Relatedness towards those taking part. Learning is a great motivator increasing theContinue reading “What do you know?”

Want to do some physical activity … nudge, nudge?!

Social – join in group physical activity, go alone or with family, friends, colleagues Inclusive – find an activity that looks and sounds welcoming Affordable – look for discounts and free sessions, there are plenty around Rewards – go because it looks like it could be fun! Goals – set yourself some nice easy shortContinue reading “Want to do some physical activity … nudge, nudge?!”

Why nature is good for you, your friends, colleagues and the NHS!

Whether connecting with nature through walks in the woods or alongside a river, or even better, working out in a group, your physical, mental and social wellbeing, as well as that of your friends and colleagues, will be improved. Thus, reducing your need for the NHS! Here are snippets from 3 research studies 🌳👩🏽‍🎓🤸🏽; 🌳👩🏽‍🎓🤸🏽  Continue reading “Why nature is good for you, your friends, colleagues and the NHS!”

PAAC – Physical Activity Against Covid

How you can fight Covid Variants and be a Local Super Hero … “Regular, moderate to vigorous physical activity is associated with reduced risk of community-acquired infectious diseases and infectious disease mortality, enhances the first line of defence of the immune system, and increases the potency of vaccination.”  Effects of Regular Physical Activity on theContinue reading “PAAC – Physical Activity Against Covid”

Can Physical Activity Increase Brain Processing Speed?

Moderate physical activity is linked to thinking faster, increased attention span, improved problem solving abilities and improved working memory across all age groups. The effect increases with age. A single bout of physical activity increases cerebral blood flow and neurotransmitter (dopamine/endorphin) levels, resulting in increased levels of arousal, attention and effort, which in turn positivelyContinue reading “Can Physical Activity Increase Brain Processing Speed?”

How can physical activity increase self esteem?

There is a strong connection between social physical activity and self esteem. Self-esteem is not just high self-regard, but a natural high that we feel when included in groups. It is fundamental to psychological wellbeing and a key indicator of emotional stability.  High self-esteem is associated with a number of positive characteristics such as independence,Continue reading “How can physical activity increase self esteem?”

Intrinsic & Extrinsic Goals in Physical Activity

Intrinsic motivators – the ultimate in being happy, short, medium and long term. Examples include; exercising/ socialising with others, feeling valued, increasing knowledge, having autonomy (actual/perceived), knowing you are physically healthier, enjoying physical challenges. Extrinsic motivators – useful short term for getting started, achieving a short term goal, immediate encouragement. Examples include; free session, coffeeContinue reading “Intrinsic & Extrinsic Goals in Physical Activity”

Social and economic value of community sport and physical activity

From Sport England and Sheffield Hallam University … for every £1 spent on community sport and physical activity, a return on investment (ROI) of £3.91 was created for individuals and society. More than £3.6bn worth of savings were generated by the prevention of 900,000 cases of diabetes, while a further £3.5bn of value was generated throughContinue reading “Social and economic value of community sport and physical activity”

Learning as an intrinsic motivator for physical activity

Providing knowledge to those taking part in physical activity means; Participants have more interest in what/why they are doing PT Participants have a another reason to come to sessions (to learn) Participants increase their confidence Participants are more likely to share the knowledge if they have something interesting to offer This help’s participants develop ‘KnowledgeContinue reading “Learning as an intrinsic motivator for physical activity”

Tips for overcoming common barriers to regular exercise

Everyone has some level of fitness. It is important to keep it, not lose it! Weather you start small or already exercise, keeping fit and healthy is good for you, your family and friends, your colleagues and the local community. You will visit the doctor less, you will fight off any coughs, colds and diseasesContinue reading “Tips for overcoming common barriers to regular exercise”

Individuals physically active from midlife show a reduced later risk of cognitive impairment.

The cognitive benefits of PA are highlighted by epidemiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies. Epidemiological studies identified PA as an influential lifestyle factor in predicting rates of cognitive decline.   Neuroimaging studies documented attenuation of age-related brain atrophy, and also increase of gray matter and white matter of brain areas, including frontal and temporal lobes. These structuralContinue reading “Individuals physically active from midlife show a reduced later risk of cognitive impairment.”

Workplace wellness programme shown to significantly improve several domains of psychological wellbeing

This was a 3 month exercise and nutrition programme for employees of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Significant improvements were found in multiple domains of physical and mental well-being. The study was found to improve the following seven domains: physical health, mental health, stress, energy level, social satisfaction, self-efficacy and quality of life.Continue reading “Workplace wellness programme shown to significantly improve several domains of psychological wellbeing”

Promoting physical activity amongst older adults…

Enjoyable and fun! – This is what adults between 50 to 87 wanted most from physical activity sessions. This study asked active older adults what motivated them to be active and asking inactive older adults what might encourage them to change. The study also noted the fact that both motivated and unmotivated older adults needContinue reading “Promoting physical activity amongst older adults…”

Behavioural strategies to increase physical activity in adults

Consider the use of effective low-cost motivational and behavioural strategies for increasing physical activity. Behavioural and motivational approaches to increase the likelihood of enduring behaviour change include; increasing motivation, self-efficacy, sense of control over physical activity,  using a personalized approach with social support and setting of meaningful goals. These strategies can lead to increases inContinue reading “Behavioural strategies to increase physical activity in adults”

Physical Activity – People first, training second

Requirements for Successful Behaviour Change Help people develop; 1. Desire (want to do it – includes allaying COVID-19 fears, will put in the effort, have made it a priority) 2. Knowledge (know what to do, when, where, how) 3. Skills (can do it properly/effectively) Here are the details 🤹🏽

Increasing the Adherence to Exercise if you have a High BMI

Multiple short bouts of activity (i.e. 10 minutes) are at least as effective in facilitating exercise adherence and weight loss, as a single long bout (i.e. 40 minutes) 🤼‍♂️⏱ Research article; #WeAreUndefeatable  #ThisGirlCan  #EveryMindMatters  #Active10  #Change4Life  #HealthierYouRM  #ParkRunUK #MemoryWalk  #AlzheimersSoc  #BritishLungFoundation  #BloodCancerUK  #BreastCancer_UK  #DiabetesUK  #ParkinsonsUK  #SportinMind  #StreetGames  #theStrokeAssociation  #CentralYMCA

Why group exercise is so effective: The psychology behind working out with others

Full article here 🏋️‍♂️🏋🏽‍♀️🚶🏽🧗‍♂️ #WeAreUndefeatable  #ThisGirlCan  #EveryMindMatters  #Active10  #Change4Life  #HealthierYouRM  #ParkRunUK #MemoryWalk  #AlzheimersSoc  #BritishLungFoundation  #BloodCancerUK  #BreastCancer_UK  #DiabetesUK  #ParkinsonsUK  #SportinMind  #StreetGames  #theStrokeAssociation  #CentralYMCA

Social Bonds and Exercise: Evidence for a Reciprocal Relationship

The studies showed that moderate intensity group exercise leads to cooperative social bonds among participants and that cues to group bondedness lead to a psycho-social environment where exercise ability is enhanced. See more here…👭🏾 #exercise #fitness #gym #health #workout #bootcamp #wellbeing #outdoorexercise #physicalactivity #mentalhealth #fitnessfollow #fitnessgoals #personaltrainer #getfit #socialfit #fitnessmotivation #fitnesstrainer #mentalwellbeing #socialwellbeing

Motivation and Behaviour Change Strategies for Exercise Adherence

Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance.Specifically the section on ‘maintenance’ is worth considering as we come out of lock down, moving back to face to face, or from low/non attendance back into a well- being program. Here is the method 🤔

Personal Trainers: Motivating Clients?

How to motivate clients?… alternatively… How can I create the conditions within which clients will motivate themselves? The following notes are based on Psychologists Edward Deci and Richard Ryan model of the key components that drive intrinsic motivation, called ‘self-determination theory’. Extrinsic rewards are a great short term motivator. Praise and recognition are an importantContinue reading “Personal Trainers: Motivating Clients?”

UK physical activity and lifestyle guidelines…For adults a focus on “STRENGTH, STRENGTH, STRENGTH”

For older adults the focus is on maintaining strength and including balance training, though in some cases older adults can be the fittest they have ever been. Maintaining strength in later life translates to additional life years, better function, better quality of life, and prolonged independent living.Full article here 🏋🏿

Study of older adults in Japan shows that participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise…

The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and mutual support.Full article 🎎

Flu? Cold? Boost your immune system. Why outdoor exercise in Winter really is good for you! Part 2

When the temperature drops outside, it makes a lot of us feel like hibernating indoors and waiting it out till sunny and longer days return. Exercise will usually take a back seat but if you decide to brave the cold and leave the electric heater behind you will soon find training in cold weather canContinue reading “Flu? Cold? Boost your immune system. Why outdoor exercise in Winter really is good for you! Part 2”

Today Public Health England launched a new edition of Health Matters focusing on how physical activity prevents and manages long-term health conditions.

The government’s prevention green paper highlights that becoming more active is good for our mental and physical health, and reduces our risk of developing a number of health conditions. It also sets out the ambition of getting everybody active in the 2020s, including those of us who are already living with a health condition.Read the full editionContinue reading “Today Public Health England launched a new edition of Health Matters focusing on how physical activity prevents and manages long-term health conditions.”

Tip for building an exercise habit; use a conditioned cue at beginning of workout followed by encoding of personal intrinsic reward to exercising.

…if you don’t see the external results you want quickly enough, you’re likely quit. This is why habit formation is essential to creating life-long behavioral changes.Full article 💡

Immediate rewards shown to be the strongest predictor of persistence and adherence when in pursuit of long term goal-related activities.

Overall, whereas delayed rewards may motivate goal setting and the intentions to pursue long-term goals, a meta-analysis of our studies finds that immediate rewards (eg. enjoyment) are more strongly associated with actual persistence in a long-term goal.Full article 🛍️

Exercising at 70 – 80% of max HR is the optimal zone for maximum endorphin release.

Aerobic exercise is known to activate the body’s stress response, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and yet many people engage in sports like running because they perceive its effects as relaxing. Solving this apparent contradiction calls for a distinction between “good stress” and “bad stress,”…Full article 😺

Listening to your favourite music during low intensity exercise can decrease stress

Listening to your favourite music during low intensity exercise at 40% of VO2 max E.g. walking or jogging, can decrease stress caused by fatigue therefore increase comfort and enjoyment.Full details 🎵

Personal and social benefits of small group training include increases in program adherence, exercise self-efficacy and self reported health and energy.

…why exercise programs that foster a sense of social belonging (in addition to motivation and efficacy) may be helpful for successful adherence to an exercise program.Full article 🏃🏾‍♀️

Further research supports reciprocal relationship between group exercise and social bonding indicating an exercise-induced ‘social high’.

Social scientists have also long speculated about the benefits of such energetically costly activities for social cohesion, and a large body of research in social and sport psychology indicates a positive association between group cohesion and performance.Full article 🧑🏼‍🤝‍🧑🏼

Here are some tips on how you could improve your group fitness classes through increasing inclusivity.

An inclusive environment starts from the moment the participant begins to contemplate attending class. The first experience a potential client may have is likely online, so make sure your class description is clear and helps prospective participants know exactly what to expect. …A specific statement that welcomes all levels and abilities is also a goodContinue reading “Here are some tips on how you could improve your group fitness classes through increasing inclusivity.”

A new study of older adults shows that just one session of exercise increased activation in the brain circuits associated with memory.

“Just like a muscle adapts to repeated use, single sessions of exercise may flex cognitive neural networks in ways that promote adaptations over time and lend to increased network integrity and function and allow more efficient access to memories,” Dr. Smith explained.Full article 🤯

Active students enjoy better mental health and are less likely to feel lonely, according to new research

Active students rated their life satisfaction significantly higher than less active students, while also reporting higher levels of happiness, increased perception of social inclusion and higher grade expectations.Full article 👨‍🎓

Any activity that increases heart rate (even if only slightly) can reduce anxiety and calm the mind.

Almost any type of exercise can help to alleviate anxiety, but research has indicated that some types may be more antiolytic than others.Basically any form of exercise that gets the body moving stands a good chance of alleviating anxiety and calming the mind.Full article 💓


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